Sertoli cell only syndrome Pathology outlines

sertoli cell only syndrome patholog

Sertoli cell nodule, abbreviated SCN, is a benign lesion of the testis that is usually incidental. It is also known as Pick's adenoma, testicular tubular adenoma and tubular adenoma of the testis Sertoli-cell-only syndrome (also referred to as germ cell aplasia) applies to a testicle in which germ cells at any stage of maturation are absent, but the tubular architecture is not effaced by fibrosis and supporting cells continue to be present. The picture superficially resembles the prepubertal testis (Figure 2) Sertoli cell tumour is a sex cord-stromal tumour typically found in the testis. It is occasionally seen in women

Sertoli cell-only syndrome (a.k.a. Del Castillo syndrome and germ cell aplasia) is a disorder characterized by male sterility without sexual abnormality. It describes a condition of the testes in which only Sertoli cells line is present in seminiferous tubules Sertoli cell-only syndrome (SCOS) also known as germ cell aplasia is characterized by azoospermia in which the seminiferous tubules of testicular biopsy are lined only with Sertoli cells. The definitive diagnosis of SCOS is by diagnostic testicular biopsy Sertoli cell only syndrome 16 30.18 Seminiferous tubule hyalinization 04 7.54 Mixed pattern 05 9.43 Discordant pattern 01 1.88 Table 2: Mixed histopathological patterns in the same testicular biopsy (n=05) Mixed Histopathological patterns No. of cases Sertoli cell only syndrome - Germ cell maturation arrest Materials and Methods: All testicular biopsies from males with infertility received by the Pathology Department of King AbdulAziz University Hospital, Jeddah, in the period from January 2004 until May 2010 are reviewed and histopathologically classified into seven categories as follows : Normal spermatogenesis, hypospermatogenesis, germ cell maturation arrest (GCMA), Sertoli cell only syndrome.

Leydig cells are usually normal in appearance but may appear to be increased in number due to reduced tubular diameter. Causes of Sertoli cell-only syndrome include: gonadotropin deficiency, cryptorchidism, viral orchitis, irradiation, alkylating agents, hormonal therapy for prostate cancer etc. slide 4 of 1 I'revious literature dealing with l)rimary testicttlar disorders has emplmsized the germ cell alteration, but only minor attention has been pakl to Sertoli cells. In Klinefeher's syndrome, testicular alteration has been attributed to the presence of an extra X chromosome,z7 Fhroland and Skakkebaek'a have distinguished two types of Sertoli-cell. The following histologic subtypes are seen: adult granulosa cell tumor, juvenile granulosa cell tumor, Sertoli-Leydig cell tumor, sex cord tumor with annular tubules, and mixed forms, including gynandroblastoma. Figure 1 shows representative pathology images from juvenile granulosa cell tumor, Sertoli-Leydig cell tumors, and gynandroblastoma Sertoli cell-only syndrome (SCOS) also known as germ cell aplasia is characterized by azoospermia in which the seminiferous tubules of testicular biopsy are lined only with Sertoli cells No. 4 TESTICULAR & OVARIAN ANDROBLASTOMA & SERTOLI CELL TUMORY reilurn 773 man, a slight degree of gynecomastia and a nut-sized swelling of the left testis were ob- served at the age of 52. Ten years later the tumor became larger, and in 1 year it reached a size of 9~7x5 cm. and a weight of 180 gm., and the gynecomastia increased

Cancers only rarely appear to arise from a pre-existing hamartomatous polyps; Special associated neoplasms or polyps Cervix - adenoma malignum; Ovary - sex cord tumor with annular tubules; Testis - multifocal intratubular large cell hyalinizing sertoli cell neoplasm Some are invasive and thus designated malignan Aims: To document the morphology, immunohistochemical staining properties, and ultrastructural features of hyaline material in Sertoli cell nodules of undescended testis and contrast them with those of sex cord tumour with annular tubules (SCTAT), which is histologically similar. To highlight the need to distinguish these nodules from other Sertoli cell hyperplasias, such as intratubular. Large cell calcifying Sertoli cell tumor : Large cell calcifying Sertoli cell tumor of the testis. A clinicopathologic, immunohistochemical, and ultrastructural study of two cases. Tetu B, Ro JY, Ayala AG. Department of Pathology, L'Hotel-Dieu de Quebec, Canada. Am J Clin Pathol 1991 Dec;96(6):717-22 Abstract quot

The term Sertoli-cell--only syndrome should be reserved for those cases in which all the tubules in the biopsy show absence of germ cells; if some tubules contain only Sertoli cells but other tubules contain advanced spermatids, the overall diagnosis is hypospermatogenesis with a mixed pattern In Sertoli cell tumors, expression was diffuse (>50% of positive cells) in all positive cases. When positive in the non-Sertoli cell tumors, the extent of expression tended to be focal to patchy (50% or less positive cells). In Sertoli cell tumors, inhibin and calretinin were expressed in 96% and 54% of cases, respectively Leydig cells were hyperplastic. The prepubertal patients showed only diffuse lesions characterized by Sertoli cell hyperplasia, decreased germ cell numbers, and a discontinuous immunoreaction to collagen IV Sertoli cells. Germinal epithelium of the testicle. Histological section through testicular parenchyma of a boar. A Sertoli cell (a kind of sustentacular cell) is a 'nurse' cell of the testes which is part of a seminiferous tubule. It is activated by follicle-stimulating hormone, and has FSH-receptor on its membranes The Sertoli cell only syndrome and the seminiferous tubule hyalinization categories were each reported in 16 cases (16%). Nine cases (9%) showed a mixed pattern. Discordant pattern was seen in 5 (5%) cases.<br>Conclusion: Our study showed that hypospermatogenesis is the commonest pattern in testicular biopsies taken from males with.

Sertoli-Cell-Only Syndrome - StatPearls - NCBI Bookshel

Welcome to the updated version of Pathology for Urologists! This program was designed to help Urology residents and fellows familiarize themselves with the pathologic features of common urologic entities. This will serve not only as a resource tool for your review but also as a quick reference guide to urologic pathology cal alterations that might occur in the structure of the ipsilateral testis after experimental varicocele, to determine whether this effect was time dependent, and to evaluate the possible role of l-carnitine on the varicocele. Materials and methods Thirty-six young adult albino rats were used. They were equally divided into three groups. Group 1 was the control. Group 2 was the experimentally. Sertoli cell only syndrome on right and Germ cell maturation arrest on left side. On categorization of testicular biopsies according Johnson scoring system, the most frequent pattern was of seminiferous tubule hyalinization (34.375%) and they were The second was Germ cell maturation arrest (25%) and they were correlated to Johnso

Sertoli cell-only syndrome Genetic and Rare Diseases

  1. Morphological evidence for two types of idiopathic 'Sertoli‐cell‐only' syndrome. T. TERADA. Corresponding Author. Department of Pathology, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Bunkyou‐ku, Tokyo, Japan.
  2. ation reveals the absence of spermatogenetic cells, which is the only pathology in most cases. In a
  3. iferous tubules. Sertoli cells may have a cytoplasm with eosinophilic granules (lysosomes). This is a nonspecific finding described in several contexts. DDx: Sertoli cell nodule. Testicular scar. Germ cell neoplasia in situ (intratubular germ cell neoplasia)
  4. Article. Sertoli cell only syndrome with ambiguous genitalia. April 2016; Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology and Metabolism 29(7
  5. Young RH, Scully RE. Well-differentiated ovarian Sertoli-Leydig cell tumors: a clinicopathologic analysis of 23 cases. Int J Gyn Path 3:277-290, 1984. Zaloudek C, Norris HJ. Sertoli-Leydig tumor of the ovary: a clinicopathologic study of 64 intermediate and poorly differentiated neoplasms. Am J Surg Pathol 8:405-418, 1984. Rutgers JL, Scully RE

Sertoli Cell-Only Syndrome - an overview ScienceDirect

The Sertoli cell only syndrome and the seminiferous tubule hyalinization categories were each reported in 16 cases (16%). Nine cases (9%) showed a mixed pattern. Discordant pattern was seen in 5 (5%) cases.<br>Conclusion: Our study showed that hypospermatogenesis is the commonest pattern in testicular biopsies taken from males with. We compared three populations: 35 KS 47,XXY non-mosaic patients, 28 Sertoli-cell-only (SCO) syndrome patients and 9 patients with normal spermatogenesis. In KS patients the expression of BTB proteins connexin-43 and claudin-11 assessed with a semi-quantitative scoring system appeared significantly reduced with a disorganised pattern

mcl But seriously though, pathology outlines says sertoli-leydig tumor may be suspected clinically in a young patient presenting with a combination of virilization, elevated testosterone levels and ovarian / pelvic mass on imaging studies. As for follicle cell tumors, granulosa cell tumors usually occur in adults and would cause elevated levels of estrogens J Endocrinol 166: 153-161. von Bomhard D, Pukkavesa C, Haenichen T (1978) The Ultrastructure of testicular tumours in the dog: III Sertoli cells and Sertoli cell Tumours and general conclusions. J Comp Path 88: 67-73 Untreatable male sterility is seen in 12% - primary seminiferous tubular failure, Sertoli cell-only syndrome, bilateral orchiectomy. Treatable causes of male infertility are found in 18% - obstructive azoospermia, ejaculatory duct, and prostatic midline cysts, gonadotropin deficiency, sexual function disorders, sperm autoimmunity, varicoceles. Association of terminal chromosome 1 deletion with sertoli cell-only syndrome. Hathout EH(1), Thompson K, Baum M, Dumars KW. Author information: (1)Division of Pediatrics, Loma Linda University School of Medicine, California 92354, USA. We report on del(1)(q44), developmental delay, cryptorchidism, and seizure disorder in a 19-year-old man

Sertoli-cell-only Syndrome (Germ Cell Aplasia) - WebPatholog

During postnatal life, Sertoli cells undergo extensive proliferative activity, which is essential for the expansion of the testis cords and to produce the final number of Sertoli cells in adulthood (Figure 14.1A and B) (reviewed in ).Because each Sertoli cell supports a fixed number of germ cells, the number of adult Sertoli cells quantitatively determines sperm output, with decreases and. Sertoli cell-only syndrome (SCOS) affects about 26.3-57.8% of azoospermic men, with their seminiferous tubules containing only Sertoli cells. Recently, it was reported that testicular biopsies from nonobstructive azoospermic (NOA) patients contained germ cells, and that sperm could be found in the tubules of 20% of SCOS patients using testicular sperm extraction technology Outline the epidemiology of infertility in the United States. pathology of the hypothalamus, pituitary, adrenals, or gonads can quickly lead to a hormone imbalance, malformation of the genitals, and/or infertility. Sertoli-cell only syndrome. TREATMENT OF INFERTILITY Biopsy diagnoses were as follows: Absent spermatogenesis in 19 cases (49%), of which six (32%) were due to Sertoli-cell-only syndrome, 10 cases (29%) due to maturation arrest, hypospermatogenesis in four cases (11%), and complete spermatogenesis in six cases (15%) In addition, a strong association exists between intratubular Sertoli cell proliferations and the Puetz-Jeghers syndrome. 2 Whether intratubular Sertoli cell proliferations represent a non-neoplastic, proliferative phenomenon or an intraepithelial stage in the evolution of certain Sertoli cell tumours is still controversial. 2 Although the.

Sertoli cell-only syndrome is the condition wherein sperm-manufacturing cells are absent. Treatment for elevated or low FSH levels depends upon the cause of abnormal FSH levels. A simple blood test helps measure FSH levels. FSH level above 15 mIU/ml in a man is considered as very high. Low FSH levels usually indicate improper development or. Journals & Books; Help Download full text in PDF Download Downloa

Sertoli Cell Tumor (SCT) - American Urological Associatio

  1. iferous epithelium so that these cells can be coordinated in their development or signaling function during different stages of the epithelial cycle ,
  2. - 95% of all tumors are germ cell - only 5% are non-germ cell tumors. Germ cell epidemiology Sertoli cell presentation? - usually clinically silent - tumor comprised of TUBULES. Testicular lymphoma 78 terms. 4. Male Reproductive Pathology - Guo (CB/P900) 95 terms. Reproductive Pathology VI. 86 terms. Path 13 Ovary Pathology (1&2) OTHER.
  3. Sertoli-cell-only pattern, 83% in men with maturation arrest, and 100% of men with hypospermatogenesis.2 Knowledge of the specific nature of testicular pathology is of primary importance because other clinical para-meters, such as follicle-stimulating hormone plasma levels The Sertoli cell, an intratubular elongated pyramida

Sertoli cell nodule - Libre Patholog

Outline the evaluation of male infertility. Isolated right-sided varicoceles are suggestive of retroperitoneal pathology, such as renal cell carcinoma with an obstructing tumor thrombus in the vena cava. Sertoli cell-only syndrome (azoospermia with high FSH levels. Testis biopsy needed for diagnosis. Progression to invasive urothelial cancer is believed to occur via 2 molecular pathways: hyperplasia/papillary (70-80%) and flat/dysplasia (20-30%) pathways, both are associated with chr. 9 losses at initiation. Majority in flat pathway progress to invasive carcinoma , and is associated with abnormalities in p53 and Rb genes.; Hyperplasia pathway is associated with HRAS and EGFR mutations, and.

Genetics, Inheritance, and Key Clinical Features - DICER1

A Practical Approach to Testicular Biopsy Interpretation

  1. Orchitis, Sertoli Cell only syndrome, infertility. Sexual transmission. Zika virus: Sexual transmission (Orchitis, epididymo-orchitis, and infertility in mouse models) Hepatitis viruses B/C: Sperm parameter alteration, sexual transmission: Herpes simplex virus: Prostatitis, epididymitis, sperm parameter alteration: Human papillomaviru
  2. Large cell calcifying Sertoli tumors may be associated with PJS and Carney syndrome. The large cell, calcifying Sertoli tumor seen in Carney syndrome is unlikely to metastasize and orchiectomy is likely to be curative. 51 Testis-sparing surgery has also been described in this group. 5
  3. The incidence of testicular tumors has been increasing in recent decades, with 8480 new cases predicted in 2010 in the United States.1,2 It is estimated that the lifetime risk for testicular cancer for males born in the United States from 2005 to 2007 is 1 in 271.3 Testicular cancers are the most common solid malignancy and the second leading cause of cancer death in young men.2,3 However.
  4. Fig. 39.1. Cryptorchid testis in 13- year-old boy. Tubules have no germ cells and show aspermatogenesis. Right side of field has a Sertoli cell nodule. The histologic appearance of cryptorchid testis varies with age, testicular position, and prior hormonal therapy. Human chorionic gonadotropin- or gonadotropin-releasing hormone [GnRH] is sometimes used as a hormonal means t
  5. Sertoli cell-only pattern at low power, the tubules show a single cell type and lack mature spermatozoa in the lumens. Figure 4.39. At high power, the classic cytologic features of Sertoli cells are present—pyramidal cells with wispy eosinophilic cytoplasm and ill-defined cell borders

(a) Seminiferous tubule containing Sertoli cells only (hematoxylin and eosin stain). (b) Sertoli cells in atrophy show prominent hTR expression (also seen in entrapped tubule of Fig. 4b, left) similar to that seen in Sertoli cells associated with intratubular germ cell neoplasia of the unclassified type (see Fig. 8). Sertoli cells displayed the. Introduction. Most male testicular tumors are mainly germ cell tumors (1,2).The incidence of sex cord-stromal tumors is low, accounting for about 4-6% of all testicular tumors (3,4).Mixed sex cord-stromal tumors (MSCSTs) are rarer, currently only four cases of mixed adult granulosa cell tumor (AGCT) with Sertoli cell tumor have been reported in the literature (3,5-7)

Sertoli cell tumour - Libre Patholog At least 5% of empy scrotum. vascular accident/va during embry or fetal development leading to loss of initially normal testicle. phenotype depends on the time of va - variants from unilateral anorchia through ambiguous genitalia to female internal & external phenotype. From previous studies on semen TEX101, we had shown that men having a Sertoli Cell Only pattern (lacking germ cells) would have undetectable TEX101 in the semen, while those with complete spermatogenesis would have detectable TEX101 levels. 23, 24 Since successful sperm retrieval rates for men with NOA are reported to be between 30-70%, we. The two main categories of testicular tumors are germ cell tumors (GCTs), which account for 95 percent of cases, and sex cord-stromal tumors. Testicular pathology is a nosologically complex subject because of the spectrum of histologic subtypes and variable clinical behavior, particularly among GCTs. Prediction of biologic behavior depends upon.

Peutz-Jeghers syndrome (PJS), in most cases, is attributed to mutation in STK11/LKB1 and is clinically characterized by. We selected Sertoli cell-only and maturation arrest cases for two reasons: these two pathologies have clear histological characteristics and a high frequency of Yq microdeletions in Sertoli cell-only syndrome has been reported in prospective studies (Foresta et al., 1998; Ferlin et al., 1999) In humans, pure or total Sertoli cell-only syndrome is characterized by azoospermia and a complete lack of germ cells, whereas the mixed form reveals focal Sertoli cell-only areas adjacent to. Immunohistochemistry studies in case of Sertoli cell-only syndrome with immature Sertoli cells (n =1) showed expression of inhibin B bodies: these are gran-ules in apical region of the cells (+2). In Leydig cells (+2) as well as in germ cells (+2), a marked inhibin B expression can also be detected. In case of Sertoli cell Sertoli cell only syndrome is a common finding of non-obstructive azoospermia. It is a histopathologic phenotype of spermatogenic failure described first by Del Castillo et al. . In complete germ cell aplasia, the tubules are reduced in diameter, contain only Sertoli cells and no germ cells are present

Sertoli-cell-only syndrome (germ cell aplasia) showing the presence of only Sertoli cells. The touch preparation in this case also shows air drying artifact. [a) touch prep, ×400 magnification, Pap stain; b) biopsy, ×200 magnification, H and E stain d Classical Sertoli-cell-only syndrome (SCOS) where no germ cells are present. Only Sertoli cells are found inside the seminiferous tubules marked with an asterisk (*). e SCO (*) with partial hyalinisation of tubules (#). f Spermatocytic arrest (SPA) (§) at the stage of spermatocytes. The bar represents 100 microns and all images are in the. Tubules shrink in size, the basement membranes become wavy, and with time, the Sertoli cells disappear so that all that remains is an outline of the previous tubule. The epididymis remains as a hypoplastic tube, but over time, it too may ' fade'and only a vestige remains In 20% of tubuli, Sertoli Cell Only (SCO) syndrome was observed in the sections of ApoE −/− /LDL receptor −/− mice , thus the classification of germ cell was not possible in all tubuli. Tubuli with remaining spermatogenesis showed irregular germ cell succession

Sertoli cell-only syndrome - Wikipedi

Chronic infantile neurologic cutaneous and articular syndrome. Chronic Lyme disease. Chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome. Churg-Strauss syndrome. Chédiak-Higashi syndrome. Claude's syndrome. Clinically isolated syndrome. CLOVES syndrome. COACH syndrome Approximately 50 % of Sertoli-Leydig cell tumors have been recently reported to express FOXL2, and only rarely are associated with FOXL2 mutations [63, 126]. Sex Cord Tumor with Annular Tubules This is an unusual tumor (Fig. 16a ) that may be associated with Peutz-Jeghers syndrome [ 127 ] in which instance it is typically bilateral.

Sertoli cell function. Sertoli cells have extensive cytoplasm which spans the full height of the seminiferous epithelium from basement membrane to lumen (Figure 21.2).Where adjacent Sertoli cells come into contact with each other near the basement membrane, special occluding junctions are formed which divide the seminiferous epithelium into a basal (outer) compartment, which interacts with the. Pseudohermaphroditism: Androgen insensitivity syndrome: An immunohistochemical, ultrastructura, and morphometric study. Health and Medicine Reference Covering Thousands of Diseases and Prescription Drugs 60. M. Jain and A. Halder: Sertoli cell only syndrome: Status of sertoli cell maturation and function. Indian J Endocrinol Metab, 16, S512-513 (2012) 61. R. C. Martin-du Pan and A. Campana: Physiopathology of spermatogenic arrest. Fertil Steril, 60, 937-946 (1993) 62. B Maduro MR, Casella R, Kim E, et al. Microsatellite instability and defects in mismatch repair proteins: a new aetiology for Sertoli cell-only syndrome. Mol Hum Reprod 2003;9:61-8. Lee JY, Dada R, Sabanegh E, et al. Role of genetics in azoospermia. Urology 2011;77:598-601

The significance of cell death occurring during spermatogenesis is a subject of interest because of its potential medical importance. Unfortunately, the field has been difficult Sertoli cell-only syndrome Sertoli cell nodule OSU Center for Veterinary Health Sciences Sertoli Cell Tumor / genetics* * Sertoli Cell Tumor / pathology Sertoli cell tumor and gonadoblastoma in an untreated 29-year-old 46,XY phenotypic male with Frasier syndrome Pathology Outlines - Intratubular large cell hyalinizing Sertoli cell. Sertoli-cell-only Syndrome (Germ Cell Aplasia) This testicular biopsy is from a patient with normal semen volume and azoospermia; The biopsy shows seminiferous tubules lined only by mature Sertoli cells; The term wind-swept appearance has been used to describe sertoli cells in this condition

Sertoli cell-only syndrome: etiology and clinical

An unusual Sertoli cell tumor with annular tubules in Peutz-Jeghers syndrome: report of a case and review of the literature on ovarian tumors in Peutz-Jeghers syndrome. Reflections on a 40-Year Experience With a Fascinating Group of Tumors, Including Comments on the Seminal Observations of Robert E. Scully, M 12-Oculo-cerebro-renal Syndrome . 13-Metabolic syndrome . 14-Pickwickian syndrome . 15- Kallmann syndrome . 16-Sertoli-cell-only syndrome . 17-Lambert-Eaton syndrome . 18-Guillain Barré syndrome . 19-Horner's syndrome . 20-Brown-Séquard syndrome. Syndrome 9. Sertoli cell tumors are sporadic in 60% of the reported cases, while the remaining is a component of multiple neoplasia syndromes such as Peutz-Jeghers syndrome and Carney complex. (hindawi.com) We present a 4-year-old boy with gynecomastia due to Sertoli cell tumor with no evidence of Peutz-Jeghers syndrome or Carney complex.

Light micrographs of seminiferous tubules of the testis of wild-type (a, c) and FORKO (b, d) mice at 3 mo of age.Note reduction in size of the tubules of FORKO mice (b) as compared with their wild-type counterparts (a).In a and c, the seminiferous epithelium (SE) shows a close association of Sertoli cells with germ cells.The heads of the elongating spermatids (arrows) are tightly apposed to. Testes pathology. Male infertility, inflammatory causes and tumors , • They are large in size and have round or polygonal cell outlines, abundant granular eosinophilic cytoplasm, and round central nucleus. •Majority of sertoli cell tumors are benign but only 10%may metastasize to regional lymph nodes A testicular biopsy is required to distinguish between Sertoli cell-only syndrome, hypospermatogenesis, spermatogenic arrest, and obstructive forms. such as oligoovulation or known pelvic pathology. the couple should leave with a plan that outlines future testing and treatment. Treatment plans are generally limited to a short interval. According to both Johnsen' and McLachlan' scoring systems of germinal histological classification, testis parenchyma of negative sperm retrieval iNOA men were classified as Sertoli cells only.

The testes may exhibit at least four distinct features: Sertoli cell-only tubules, Leydig cell hyperplasia, nodular Sertoli cell masses, and germ cell atypia and neoplasia ( Figs. 1.11 to 1.13 ). The background pattern consists of Sertoli tubules devoid of spermatogonia, admixed with abundant Leydig cells (see Fig. 1.12A and B ) Aims and outlines of the thesis Chapter 3 31 Pathobiological implications of the expression of markers of testicular carcinoma in situ by fetal germ cells. Journal of Pathology 203: 849-857, 2004 Chapter 4 49 Germ cell lineage differentiation in non-seminomatous germ cell tumours. Journal of Pathology 208: 395-400, 200

IHC stain with Inh-A (inhibin-A) helps to differentiate from germ cell tumors but not from Sertoli cell tumors. Calretinin is a positive marker for LCT while WT-1 for SCT. SALL4, which is a newer marker, is negative in LCT and positive in GCTs. NKX3.1 is expressed routinely in Sertoli cells and P501S in Leydig cells and rete testis epithelium cells , because of fear of trauma to the testes with hematoma formation by the procedure and because cytology was unable to give information about the tubular basement membrane and status of interstitial tissue.11 But later on many studies carried out showed that FNAC evaluated spermatogenesis of entire testes

Bilateral ISCPs were the only pathologic finding in three patients (patient nos. 1-3) and were associated with a microscopic tumor that resembled a large-cell calcifying Sertoli cell tumor (LCCSCT) in a fourth patient (patient no. 4) Etv5 is expressed not only in the germline but also in Sertoli cells. Mice with a targeted Etv5 deletion undergo the first wave of spermatogenesis, but they subsequently show progressive germ cell depletion and a Sertoli cell-only syndrome (Chen et al., 2005) We have studied gonadal tissue from 10 individuals, 0.3-17 years of age, with a male phenotype and either hypospadias and/or cryptorchidism. Four patients, 0.3-15 years of age, had carcinoma in situ, 1 boy had Sertoli-cell-only pattern and the remainder prepubertal histology. Gonadoblastoma or invasive carcinoma was not found The Sertoli cells only prolificate after the completion of one year and therefore become an equal to the follicular cells that exist within women. On the other hand, the Leydig cells only start to prolificate once the 7 th week starts during the time of the second trimester No previous diagnostic biopsy has been (four patients without diagnostic testicle biopsy) or of foci of obtained in 10% of the patients, the remaining presenting complete spermatogenesis (,2% of tubules) in diagnostic Sertoli cell only (SCO) syndrome (48%) or maturation arrest testicle biopsy (seven patients with maturation arrest at the at the. (F) ovarian Sertoli cell tumour composed of solid Sertoli cell tubules. JGCT, juvenile granulosa cell tumour; SCST, sex cord-stromal tumour. Figure 2 (A) Small-cell carcinoma of the ovary of hypercalcaemic type composed of small round blue cells with scant cytoplasm and with follicle-like formations