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Types of oblique projection

Main Types of Oblique Projection

Oblique projection - Wikipedi

(2) Dimetric Projection : It is a kind of orthographic projection where the visualized object appears to have only two adjacent sides and angles are equal. (3) Trimetric Projection : It is a kind of orthographic projection where the visualized object appears to have all the adjacent sides and angles unequal. (b) Oblique Projection : It is a kind of parallel projection where projecting rays. Oblique Projection There are two types of oblique projections − Cavalier and Cabinet. The Cavalier projection makes 45° angle with the projection plane. The projection of a line perpendicular to the view plane has the same length as the line itself in Cavalier projection

Oblique Projection: In parallel projection, the angle between the projection plane and projector lines is 90 degrees. If this angle is not 90 degrees, this projection type is called oblique projection. In technical drawing, multiview projection type is generally used. In multiview projection, the part is illustrated on a technical drawing sheet. In Parallel Projection, image points are found at the intersection of the view plane with parallel projectors drawn from the object points in a fixed direction. The two basic types of parallel projection are: Orthographic Projection. Oblique Projection In oblique projection, the projector lines form oblique angles (non-right angles) with the projection plane. There are two types of oblique projections: Cavalier and Cabinet

What Is Oblique Drawing Oblique Drawing Examples What

  1. In oblique projection, we can view the object better than orthographic projection. There are two types of oblique projections − Cavalier and Cabinet. The Cavalier projection makes 45° angle with the projection plane. The projection of a line perpendicular to the view plane has the same length as the line itself in Cavalier projection
  2. Parallel projections For parallel projections, we specify a direction of projection (DOP) instead of a COP. There are two types of parallel projections: w Orthographic projection — DOP perpendicular to PP w Oblique projection — DOP not perpendicular to PP There are two especially useful kinds of oblique projections: w Cavalier projection
  3. Types of views used in drawings. The two main types of views (or projections) used in drawings are: pictorial; orthographic; Pictorial views. Pictorial views show a 3-D view of how something should look when completed. There are three types of pictorial views: perspective; isometric; oblique; Perspective vie
  4. Diagonal projection and th orthographic projection are used to draw approximately parallel lines in the image through parallel lines of the object. Oblique Projection was universally used by Chinese artists from the 1st to the 18th century. House-like objects and objects were displayed by Chinese artists
  5. Oblique projection is a simple type of graphical projection used for producing pictorial, two-dimensional images of three-dimensional objects
  6. An oblique projection is a simple type of graphical projection used for producing pictorial, two-dimensional images of three-dimensional objects: it projects an image by intersecting parallel rays (projectors) from the three-dimensional source object with the drawing surface (projection plan)
  7. Oblique Projection: In the Oblique Parallel Projection, the direction of projection is not normal to projection of plane. It is a simple technique that is used to construct two-dimensional images of three-dimensional objects. The Oblique Projection is mostly used in technical drawing. The Oblique Projection is divided into two parts

Parallel (Othographic & Oblique) Projection in Computer

Oblique projection. - There are two types of oblique projection: 1) Cavalier (angle between projectors and projection plane is 45°. Perpendicular faces are projected at full scale) This projection will not be used. 2) Cabinet (angle between projectors and projection plane is 45°. Perpendicular faces are projected at 50% scale Clarification: A variant of oblique projection is called military projection. In this case the horizontal sections are isometrically drawn so that the floor plans are not distorted and the verticals are drawn at an angle. The military projection is given by rotation in the xy-plane and a vertical translation an amount z

How do you do an oblique projection? - AskingLot

Still, an Oblique projection can create a unique appearance, and one if its sub-types, Cabinet projection, has enjoyed some success in videogames. Pac-Mania, Ultima VII, and Earthbound, three games that looked a bit odd at times, but generally benefited from using Oblique projection Computer Graphics Parallel Projection TypesOrthographicOblique AxanometricCavalier Cabinet#parallelprojection#Orthographic#Oblique What is Projection: https:..

Remember that oblique projections are not how we actually see things. This is also mentioned in the video above. We see things either as a shape or if we see multiple sides of it, we see it in some kind of perspective which leads us to the third and last type of pictorial drawing Oblique Projection Oblique is a simple type of projection that only requires one image. It can be drawn with traditional tools because it's not complex. It depicts a 2D image of a 3D object. The object is drawn from the front view, and then the other areas are added in relation to it. It can be divided into two types based on the scaling of. All three types are equally simple with computer graphics. Parallel projections For parallel projections, we specify a direction of projection (DOP) instead of a COP. There are two types of parallel projections: w Orthographic projection — DOP perpendicular to PP w Oblique projection — DOP not perpendicular to P Oblique projection. Cabinet Projection. Clinographic Projection. Cavalier Projection. Subsequently, one may also ask, what are the two main types of projection? There are two main types of projection: A. Parallel and Orthographic. Station-point and Perspective. Parallel and Convergent. Perspective and Parallel The oblique projection is a simple type of graphical projection used for producing the pictorial and 2-D images of 3-D objects. Example :-The following example shows the oblique projection of a camera. This projection projects an image by the intersecting parallel-rays

Projection Types And Methods In Technical Drawing

  1. View Types Axonometric projection is a type of orthographic projection used for creating a pictorial drawing of an object, where the lines of sight are perpendicular to the plane of projection, and the object is rotated around one or more of its axes to reveal multiple sides. Oblique projection is a simple type of technical drawing of graphical projection used fo
  2. g other types of cylindrical projections. If the cylinder is tangent at a meridian, it is a transverse cylindrical projection; if it is tangent at any point other than the equator or a meridian, it is called an oblique cylindrical projection
  3. types of oblique axonometry are used, because of their ease of drawing. 5.3.1 Cavalieraxonometry In this type of oblique axonometry, the projection plane is normally vertical and the projection of the third coor-dinate axis is chosen by convention at 45° to the re-maining projected orthogonal axes; the scales on th

Drawing an Oblique Projection Step 3 and 4: Complete the remaining sides of the box and cleanup your lines. Step 5: Your Oblique box is complete. Note the dimensions you have drawn the box at. Cavalier and Cabinet Oblique Projections There are two types of Oblique Projection Drawings, Cavalier and Cabinet. 1 The Oblique Mercator projection was replaced by the Space Oblique Mercator projection for Land-sat map images in 1972 with the launching of an earth-mapping satellite by NASA. This map projection allowed mapping of the scanned orbit cycles, with the ground-track continuously at a correct scale and the swath on a conformal projection The types of parallel projection are Orthographic projection and quadric projection Orthographic projection and oblique projection Oblique projection and quadric projection None of these. Computer Graphics Objective type Questions and Answers There are two different types of parallel projections: If the direction of projection is perpendicular to the projection plane then it is an orthographic projection. If the direction of projection is not perpendicular to the projection plane then it is an oblique projection. Look at the parallel projection of a point (x, y, z) A general oblique is a type of oblique pictorial that represents an object's width and height, but the depth can be any size and drawn at any angle. Projection Plane An imaginary surface on which the view of the object is projected and drawn

Types of Projection in Computer Graphics - Webeduclick

  1. oblique projection Flashcards. A form of pictorial drawings in which the most descriptive or. Used as the basis for both oblique drawing and oblique sketchi. The actual angles that the projectors make with the plane of p. Drawn true length along the receding axis
  2. Types of the oblique projection an angle greater than the angle of inclination of the generators with the base 18-6. Rules for the choice of position of an object 14-5. Sections of spheres 18-7. Steps for drawing the oblique projection (1) Section plane parallel to the H.P. 18-8..
  3. Special types of oblique projections are cavalier projection and cabinet projection. Perspective projection. Perspective projection is a type of projection where three dimensional objects are not projected along parallel lines, but along lines emerging from a single point. This has the effect that distant objects appear smaller than nearer objects
  4. Oblique drawings are designed to show a three dimensional view of an object. The width of the object will still be drawn as a horizontal line, but the depth can be drawn back at any angle. You can choose the best angle to make the drawing look the best. There are three types of oblique, cavalier, normal, and cabinet oblique

Orthographic Vs Oblique Projection: What Is The Difference

  1. It's closest to a view called a three-quarters view, a type of axonometric projection, in between a side view and top down one. It's [a] method of portraying three dimensional space in a two-dimensional plane [very] popular during the 16-bit era for JRPGs. source
  2. Types of views Projections Parallel Converge Orthogonal Oblique Multiview Axonometric Multi-view drawing Pictorial drawing Perspective drawing. View comparison Pictorial drawing Perspective drawing Multi-view drawing Difficult to create Easy to visualize. Shape and angle distortio
  3. Oblique projection is a simple type of technical drawing of graphical projection used for producing two-dimensional images of three-dimensional objects. Oblique projection is commonly used in technical drawing. The cavalier projection was used by French military artists in the 18th century to depict fortifications
  4. Isometric & Oblique Differences Isometric & Oblique Pictorials Differences between oblique sketches and isometric sketches? An oblique sketch puts more focus on the face or front of an object while an isometric sketch puts more focus on the edge.
  5. You do this by extending parallel, angled lines from the figure and connecting the lines to mirror the shape. Thus an oblique drawing can be drawn directly without resorting to projection techniques. The constants uniquely specie' a parallel projection. The technique is intended to combine the illusion of depth, as in a perspective rendering, with the undistorted presentation of the object.
  6. Projection types. Because maps are flat, some of the simplest projections are made onto geometric shapes that can be flattened without stretching their surfaces. These are called developable surfaces. Some common examples are cones, cylinders, and planes. A map projection systematically projects locations from the surface of a spheroid to.
  7. Oblique sketch is an easy and efficient technique of representing an object in pictorial form. Generally, the circles and angles parallel to the plane of projection are considered to be the true size and shape of the object while constructing oblique sketches. This is because they can be easily reflected

When positioning a parieto-orbital oblique (Rhese) projection, the head is adjusted so that the midsagittal plane forms an angle of _____ with the plane of the image receptor. 53° On a properly positioned parieto-orbital oblique (Rhese) projection, the optic foramen is located in the _____ _____ quadrant of the orbital shadow Therefore it is logical to call this operation in the graphics pipeline a projection. In parallel projection, image points are found as the c. Oblique projection and quadric projection. Various types of parallel projections are shown in the following hierarchy. - Information Technology. 2 main types: perspective projection and parallel projection. Answer any three of the following. i.e. I am trying to learn the rules of the different types of orthographic projections. For example: The above adequately/simply explains the rules of trimetric, dimetric and isometric axonometric projections. Unfortunately, I have not been able to find a nice info graphic that explains the rules of the different types of oblique projections This video is about projections in Engineering Drawing. In the end of this video you will be able to answer about... Projection Plane of projection Quadr..

Oblique projection. Pictorial projections are becoming more popular due to the use of a computer in a modern drawing, dimensional object on the projection plane by one view only. This type of drawing is useful for marking an assembly of an object and provides directly a production drawing (working drawing) of the object for the manufacturing. Comparison of several types of graphical projection. Among 3/4 views, the presence of one or more 90° principal angles is often a good indicator that the perspective used is oblique projection. The term isometric perspective is frequently misapplied to any game with an—usually fixed—angled, overhead view that appears at first to be. Q2. The types of parallel projection are a. Orthographic projection and quadric projection b. Orthographic projection and oblique projection c. Oblique projection and quadric projection d. Back face removal projection Answer: b Q3. The projection in which the projection plane is allowed to intersect the x, y and z-axes at equal distances is a. Isotonic projection b The wrist series is comprised of a posteroanterior, oblique, and lateral projection.The series examines the carpal bones that are consisting of the scaphoid, lunate, triquetrum, pisiform, trapezium, trapezoid, capitate and hamate.It also examines the radiocarpal and distal radiocarpal joint along with the distal radius and ulna.. See approach to wrist series for more information 7) One-point,two-point and three-point projection are the types of perspective projection. orthographic and oblique are the types of parallel projection. 8) Perspective projection is mainly used by artists and painters, whereas Parallel projection is used by engineers

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  1. In oblique projections, one of the object's principal faces is parallel to the plane of projection. True all types of sections for isometric drawing may be applied to oblique drawing. True oblique drawings are difficult to create because you cannot use snap increments or draw similarly to drawing on grid paper
  2. Oblique Projection Oblique drawing angle 30 o A 60 o 45 o B C A Type of Oblique drawing B D C 2) Cabinet 1) Cavalier D Full scale 45 o Half scale 45 o Isometric Projection & Isometric drawing Isometric Projection Rotate 45 about vertical axis Tilt forward (35 o 16') All edges foreshorten about 0. 8 time
  3. Types OF Perspective Drawing: 1. Angular Perspective Drawing: 2. Parallel Perspective Drawing: This is such type of pictorial drawing in which the shape of an object looks same as its construction. The picture obtained in perspective drawing resembles the picture taken by a camera. A common man cannot understand an orthographic drawing. Since.
  4. Here, planes are considered as transparent. We have to draw the perpendicular lines from object to the projection planes to get the projections. Depending on the position of the object, projections are of four types: First angle projection. In this case, object rests in the first quadrant i.e. the object is in front of the V.P. and above the H.P
  5. There are two types of parallel projection, that is, orthographic and oblique parallel projection. Parallel projection can give the accurate view of object. Parallel projection represents the object in a different way like telescope. Parallel projection does not form realistic view of object

Parallel projections • Projectors are parallel to direction of projection • Center of Projection is at infinity (parallel projectors) • Orthographic: - projection plane perpendicular to an axis - Parallel lines, distances and angles are preserved • Oblique: - projection direction is NOT parallel to an axis Both kinds of viewing involve: objects, a viewer, projectors, and a projec. Schematic diagram (ipsilateral oblique view) of the 5 types of prostatic artery (PA, in blue) origin according to de Assis and Carnevale (de Assis et al. 2015). a Type I, common origin of the SVA and PA.b Type II, PA origin from the anterior division of the internal iliac, independent from and inferior to the SVA.c: Type III, PA origin from OA.d Type IV, PA origin from IPA A parallel projection is a projection of an object in three-dimensional space onto a fixed plane referred as the projection plane or image plane, where the rays, known as lines of sight or projection lines are parallel to each other. The projection is referred to as orthographic if the rays are perpendicular to the image plane and oblique or skew if they are not

For the AP oblique projection (modified Cleaves method), what is the purpose of abducting the femora the required number of degrees? To position the femoral necks parallel with the IR Which structure should be centered to the midline of the table when the AP oblique projection (modified Cleaves method) is adapted to demonstrate only one hip An oblique projection usually shows the receding side in correct size but with a distortion of angles. By habit and by indoctrination we read those angles as right angles even if they are drawn as acute or obtuse. Massimo Scolari. The Mechanism of Representation. Oblique projection became a key military tool in sixteenth- and seventeenth.

Oblique projection is a simple type of technical drawing of graphical projection used for producing two-dimensional images of three-dimensional objects. The objects are not in perspective, so they do not correspond to any view of an object that can be obtained in practice, but the technique does yield somewhat convincing and useful images.. Oblique projection is commonly used in technical drawing Oblique projection is a method of drawing objects in 3 dimensions. It is quite a simple technique compared to isometric or even perspective drawing. However, to draw accurately in oblique projection traditional drawing equipment is needed (see diagram below) Oblique Projection. Figure 8 shows part of a plain bearing in orthographic projection, and Figure 9 show alternative pictorial projections. Figure 8 - Plain Bearing in Orthographic Projection . It will be noted in Figure 9 that the thickness of the bearing has been shown by projecting lines at 45° back from a front elevation of the bearing Oblique projections are created using oblique grid paper and use 45-degree lines to create a 3D graphical image. Oblique drawings are not very realistic as it is impossible to see the front of an.

Mollweide Projection, Oblique Case. The Atlantis Map (Bartholomew, 1948), an Oblique Mollweide projection, features the Atlantic Ocean as the major focus. If neither Equator nor the central meridian are aligned with and centered on the map axes, the result is commonly called an oblique projection (or, more properly, an oblique map) Oblique Projection English Hindi You. Design 60 Of Cavalier And Cabinet Projection Mmuzone. Oblique Drawing Projection Its Types Examples Civilseek. 3 24 Length Of Receding Lines Visualization And Sketching Peachpit. Cabinet Projection. Isometric Pictorial A. Cavalier Projections •Three types - Isometric Oblique (Cavalier) PerspectiveOblique (Cabinet) Isometric -Oblique Perspective Oblique Pictorials •An Oblique pictorial starts with a straight-on view of one of the object's faces, which is often the front face •Angled, parallel lines are drawn to one side t Two types of pictorial sketches are used frequently in freehand sketching: isomet-ric and oblique. The isometric projection was discussed with respect to 3-D CAD pro-jections. The isometric projection is often used in freehand sketching because it is relatively easy to create a realistic sketch of an object. But the oblique projection is usu

oblique aspect of type Oblique Mercator Projection (UOM) of the ellipsoid-of-revolution, also called rectified skew orthomorphic by M.Hotine. J.P.Snyder calls it Hotine Oblique Mercator Projection (HOM). Landsat-type data are a satellite example. Only in the polar aspect, we present in Chapter17 the maps of the sphere to the cone. We use. Preoperative oblique-projection plain radiograph films are valuable for evaluation of the pedicle size. In an oblique projection, the contralateral pedicle is seen as an oval projected onto the vertebral body, showing the outer and inner diameter of the pedicle.If the projection shows no inner diameter, the pedicle does not have a medullary canal Oblique Projection Handrims. Oblique projection handrims are the same idea as projection handrims but the projections are longer (1 to 3) and they project at about 45° outward from the handrim instead of vertically Projection types. Conformal projections preserve angles locally, so the shapes of features appear true. But the cost of this quality is the distortion of areas and distances. Equal area projections preserve area, at the expense of angles, so the shapes of some places appear skewed. Equidistant projections preserve distances, although only from.

What is the easiest axonometric drawing? - Quora

A. Oblique projection, and B. Orthographic projection. A. Oblique projection: is a type of parallel projection obtained in such a way that the projection lines are made to be oblique or at an angle other than 90° to the picture plane. Hence the three principal faces of the object will be seen on a single picture plane 2. Oblique projection. Oblique projection is probably the simplest method of producing a pictorial drawing because surfaces are directly in front of the viewer will look very similar to the front view in an orthogonal drawing. It is a method of drawing objects in 3 dimensions and may be drawn at any angle although 45⁰ is generally used

Oblique projection is a type of technical drawing and is primarily used for producing two-dimensional images of three-dimensional objects. Technically, oblique projection is a type of parallel projection where it projects an image by intersecting parallel rays (projectors), and from the three-dimensional source object with the drawing surface. Some projections are suited for mapping large areas that are mainly north-south in extent, others for large areas that are mainly east-west in extent, and still others for large areas that are oblique to the Equator. The scale of a map on any projection is always important and often crucial to the map's usefulness for a given purpose projection has the advantage of showing one face (the front face) of the object without distortion. Generally, the face with the greatest detail faces the front. There are two types of Oblique projection used in engineering design. [B] Oblique projection [C] Isometric projection [D] Point projection . The correct answer for In which one of the following projection types, the object is kept in such a way that its three mutually perpendicular edges make equal angles with the plane of projection and the object stands on one of its corners is Isometric projection 10.3. Projection types illustrated. Because maps are flat, some of the simplest projections are made onto geometric shapes that can be flattened without stretching their surfaces. These are called developable surfaces. Some common examples are cones, cylinders, and planes. A map projection systematically projects locations from the surface of a.

Video: 4.1: Types of views used in drawings - Workforce LibreText

There are two different types of parallel projections: If the direction of projection is perpendicular to the projection plane then it is an orthographic projection. If the direction of projection is not perpendicular to the projection plane then it is an oblique projection. Look at the parallel projection of a point (x, y, z) An oblique drawing will typically be one of three types: normal, cabinet, or cavalier. To create an oblique drawing, an engineer or designer will usually begin with a three-view drawing. This consists of a single object rendered in three distinct views: from the front, the side, and the top

Orthographic projection is a type of 'parallel' projection in which the four orthogonal views of an object are shown. The orthographic projection commonly used in the UK is called first angle projection. Axonometric projection. Axonometric projection creates a true plan set at 45º, which retains the original orthogonal geometry of the plan Oblique Projection - A Practical Example. July 2021. This site provides a wealth of technology information sheets for pupils and teachers. Saved by Mfundo Dlamini. 1. Oblique Drawing Technical Drawing Three Dimensional Objects Type Drawings Simple Design Draw. More information... More like thi The previous pages discuss different types of pictorials: axonometric (including isometric), oblique, and perspective. These projections are useful for visualizing 3D objects. Lessons 4 and 5 in the Spatial Visualization app relate to isometric projections. In addition Ch. 6 in the class textbook is focused on isometric projections ENME 339 Engineering Graphics and CAD Axonometric Projection and Oblique Projection 15-12 Ellipses for Oblique Drawings It is not always possible to orient the view of an object so that all its rounded shapes are parallel to the plane of projection. Both cannot be simultaneously placed parallel to the plane of projection, so in the oblique projection, one of them must be viewed as an ellipse

What Is Oblique Drawing? Oblique Projection Procedure

Oblique Projection Oblique projection is a way of showing depth. Depth is shown by projector lines. Projector lines represent receding edges of an object. These lines are drawn at an angle other than 90o from the picture plane so they will be visible in the front view Computer Graphics Projection with Computer Graphics Tutorial, Line Generation Algorithm, 2D Transformation, 3D Computer Graphics, Types of Curves, Surfaces, Computer Animation, Animation Techniques, Keyframing, Fractals etc This is an oblique rotation of the Mercator projection. Developed for conformal mapping of areas that do not follow a north-south or east-west orientation but are obliquely oriented. Krovak The Krovak projection is an oblique Lambert conformal conic projection designed for the former Czechoslovakia. Lambert Azimuthal Equal Are Cavalier and Cabinet Oblique Projections There are two types of Oblique Projection Drawings, Cavalier and Cabinet. In a cavalier projection, the foreshortening factors for all three principal directions are equal. E \i\ \ Cabinet Projection. H 2 375 4VH 2P0P04 373Q In Cavalier Oblique Drawings, all lines (including receding lines) are made to.

CADforYOU: Orthographic projections Conventions and

Category:Oblique projection - Wikimedia Common

I have studded the wikipedia page on graphical projection but it is odd that this type of view is not represented anywhere. It is most similar to 'top-down oblique' but with the projection being vertical rather than horizontal. I wonder if perhaps this type of angle has a name in the art and illustration world rather than the technical drawing. Oblique projection is a type of parallel projection: it projects an image by intersecting parallel rays (projectors) from the three-dimensional source object with the drawing surface (projection plane). Isometric projection is a method for visually representing three-dimensional objects in two dimensions in technical and engineering drawings Projection Characteristics. The Oblique Mercator projection is a cylindrical, conformal projection. The scale is accurate along the chosen central line by the longitude and latitude settings below (1st Point and 2nd Point).This projection is used for oblique areas which are areas that do not follow lines of latitude and longitude, such as the Alaska panhandle Knowing the right anterior oblique 30 lead position can ensure proper midseptal placement. The insufficiency of left anterior oblique and the usefulness of right anterior oblique projection for correct localization of a computed tomography-verified right ventricular lead into the midseptum Publication types Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov'

Type, surface area and volume of solid figures

types of projection in engineering drawin

3.23 Oblique Sketches. Oblique drawing is an easy method for creating quick pictorials ( Figure 3.55 ). In most oblique sketches, circles and angles parallel to the projection plane are true size and shape and are therefore easy to construct. Although circular shapes are easy to sketch in the front oblique plane, they would appear elliptical in. You can use different types of oblique and vertical photographs are to identify water features, find ruptures in oil and gas lines, and locate archaeological features. In wartime, photographers use aerial photographs to locate targets. And, given advances in drone technology, the applications for this niche are growing.. The parallel projection is formed by extending parallel lines from each vertex on the object until they intersect the plane of the screen. The point of intersection is the projection of vertex. Parallel projections are used by architects and engineers for creating working drawing of the object, for complete representations require two or more.

Projection in Computer Graphics - Tutorial And Exampl

Answer to What are the three types of Axonometric projection? What is the main advantage of Oblique projection over the isometric Skip Navigation. Chegg home. Books. What is the main advantage of Oblique projection over the isometric projection? Expert Answer 100% (1 rating) Previous question Next questio 8. This type of projection is when projectors are parallel to each other, but are at an angle other than 90 degrees to the plane of projection: (a) perspective (b) oblique (c) aesthetic (d) angular; Ans: (b) 9. This is how axonometric, oblique, and perspective sketches show objects (a) Orthographically (b) Pictorially (c) Obliquely (d) Parallel. This type of projection is when projectors are parallel to each other, but are at an angle other than 90 degrees to the plane of projection: Oblique projection: Perpendicular projection: Aesthetic projection: Angular projection: These units are based on inch-foot and yard measurements

Parallelprojektion – WikipediaIsometric Pictorial Drawing | Free download on ClipArtMagEngineering drawing - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia