Variant angina vs unstable angina

Prinzmetal's or Prinzmetal Angina, Variant Angina and

  1. Prinzmetal's angina is rare, representing about two out of 100 cases of angina, and usually occurs in younger patients than those who have other kinds of angina. Causes of Variant (Prinzmetal) Angina: The pain from variant angina is caused by a spasm in the coronary arteries (which supply blood to the heart muscle)
  2. Prinzmetal's angina is also known as variant angina. It occurs when the coronary arteries spasm and cut off blood supply to the heart muscle. The spasms occur in cycles and can be caused by stress.
  3. Types of Angina. The major types of angina are stable, unstable, variant (Prinzmetal's), and microvascular. Knowing how the types differ is important. This is because they have different symptoms and require different treatments. Stable Angina. Stable angina is the most common type of angina. It occurs when the heart is working harder than usual
  4. g, so it needs emergency treatment. Microvascular vs. Prinzmetal Angina. Two other types of angina are microvascular angina and prinzmetal (variant) angina. Spasms in the blood vessel walls cause these angina types
  5. utes to thirty

Types of Angina: Stable, Unstable & Prinzmetal's Study

Unstable angina falls along a spectrum under the umbrella term acute coronary syndrome. This public health issue that daily affects a large portion of the population remains the leading cause of death worldwide. Distinguishing between this and other causes of chest pain that include stable angina is important regarding the treatment and disposition of the patient Unstable angina is dangerous and requires emergency treatment. Prinzmetal's angina. This type of angina is caused by a sudden spasm in a coronary artery, which temporarily narrows the artery. This narrowing reduces blood flow to your heart, causing severe chest pain. Prinzmetal's angina most often occurs at rest, typically overnight Unstable angina a common cause of heart attack: Causes, symptoms, treatment, and prevention. There are three types of angina: stable, unstable, and variant. This article will focus primarily on. Stable vs Unstable Angina. • Stable angina occurs with exertion while unstable angina comes on while the patient is at rest. • Stable angina occurs because the blood going to the heart muscle is not enough to cover for the extra workload in exercise. Unstable angina occurs because a blood clot blocks an artery supplying the heart muscle

Types of Angina - prinzmeta

Angina can be a signal of a more dangerous heart condition. Angina is chest pain or discomfort that occurs if an area of your heart muscle doesn't get enough oxygen-rich blood. It may feel like pressure or squeezing in your chest. It may even feel like indigestion. Angina pain also can occur in your shoulders, arms, neck, jaw or back Vasospastic angina, which was previously referred to as Prinzmetal or variant angina, is a clinical entity characterized by episodes of rest angina that promptly respond to short-acting nitrates and are attributable to coronary artery vasospasm. Prinzmetal, et al [ 1] initially described a clinical syndrome that manifested as rest angina. Source: 24.p3k.hu. - Unsteady Angina can happen whenever. You could be sleeping or having some espresso. - May feel unique in relation to the tormentor inconvenience of stable angina. - Is frequently more difficult or extreme and endures longer than stable angina—in excess of a couple of moments

4 Types of Angina (Chest Pain) - HealthiNatio

  1. Variant (Prinzmetal) angina is characterized by transient ST-segment elevation and can involve multiple coronary arterial territories. Patients typically respond to nitroglycerin and high-dose, and sometimes even dual, calcium channel blockers
  2. Nifedipine, diltiazem, and verapamil are all highly and equally effective in reducing painful and painless ischemic episodes in Prinzmetal's variant angina. In patients with unstable angina who have known or suspected significant underlying coronary artery disease, a multipharmacological approach to therapy is warranted
  3. Unstable angina happens when the angina worsens. Unstable angina is defined as having more frequent episodes of angina chest pain with less exertion, having angina chest pain when resting or having new onset of severe angina. Typically, the unstable angina is linked to a worsening of the Coronary Artery Disease, with a larger obstruction
  4. Variant angina is angina pectoris secondary to epicardial coronary artery spasm. Symptoms include angina at rest and rarely with exertion. Diagnosis is by ECG and provocative testing with ergonovine or acetylcholine. Treatment is with calcium channel blockers and sublingual nitroglycerin
  5. utes only and as soon as the blood supply to the heart is normalized, the person gets relief and he is back to normal. Angina is of two types, the stable one and the unstable one. It is the unstable angina that can lead to Myocardial Infarction. Myocardial Infarctio
  6. Prinzmetal's or Prinzmetal angina (/ˈprɪntsmɛtəl/, sounds like prints metal) (also known as variant angina, angina inversa, or coronary vessel spasm) is a.

Unstable angina is caused by plaque that contains more lipid and debris than found in the plaque of people with stable angina. When some of this material leaks into the vessel, clots form. Variant angina (Prinzmetal's angina) almost always occurs during periods of rest, usually at night Unstable angina refers to angina in which the pattern of symptoms changes. Because the characteristics of angina in a particular person usually remain constant, any change—such as more severe pain, more frequent attacks, or attacks occurring with less exertion or during rest—is serious Unstable Angina. Unstable angina is caused by transient formation and dissolution of a blood clot (thrombosis) within a coronary artery. The clots often form in response to plaque rupture in atherosclerotic coronary arteries; however, the clot may also form because diseased coronary artery endothelium (endothelial dysfunction) is unable to produce nitric oxide and prostacyclin that inhibit. A third type, variant angina is much more rare. Stable angina is long-term, recurring pain typically brought on by exertion. Unstable angina is sudden pain, or a change in the pattern of normally stable angina, and may signal a heart attack. Variant angina is loss of blood flow in the heart due to a coronary artery spasm. 3 Unstable Angina: Follows an irregular pattern, can occur suddenly when the body is in a resting state, and typically signals the onset of a heart attack in the near future

Prinzmetal's variant angina Genetic and Rare Diseases

Maybe you know that unstable angina can occur at rest, even during sleep and awaken the patient. But this type of angina (caused by plaque buildup in the coronary arteries) will also strike when the patient exercises or induces physical exertion such as carrying a heavy box to the car or running up a flight of stairs This is called unstable angina and is a very serious condition that needs immediate medical attention. If you're an athlete who's been getting along fine and have had your share of musculoskeletal back pain, but this time the issue seems to have no traceable cause, you should get your heart checked out just to play safe

Variant angina - relaxes coronary vasospasm. What type of 02 supply is used with stable angina? Decreased O2 demand. What are the similarities in acute coronary syndromes (unstable angina, NSTEMI, STEMI)? Similar pathophysiology similar presentation & early management rule Unstable angina falls along a spectrum under the umbrella term acute coronary syndrome. This public health issue that daily affects a large portion of the population remains the leading cause of death worldwide. Distinguishing between this and other causes of chest pain that include stable angina is important regarding treatment and disposition of the patient Vasospastic angina, otherwise known as variant angina or Prinzmetal angina, like stable angina, also occurs at rest but is unrelated to coronary atherosclerosis. Epidemiology. Chronic stable angina affects approximately 30000 to 40000 people per million people in western countries. Prevalence increases with age in both men and women Angina (also termed angina pectoris) is a condition characterized by chest pain, sometimes severe, that is caused by an inadequate blood supply to the heart.The pain may wax and wane. It may also spread to the shoulders, arms and or neck. Although this is the classic definition of angina, there are important variations in symptoms and types (stable, unstable, variant, and microvascular) Unstable angina refers to unexpected chest pain that generally onsets during periods of rest. It is a result of blocked arteries, which reduces the flow of blood to the heart. Variant angina is a rare form of heart pain that typically occurs in younger individuals and is generally the result of stress, cocaine use, exposure to cold weather, and.

Unstable angina results from acute obstruction of a coronary artery without myocardial infarction. Symptoms include chest discomfort with or without dyspnea, nausea, and diaphoresis. Diagnosis is by ECG and the presence or absence of serologic markers. Treatment is with antiplatelet drugs, anticoagulants, nitrates, statins, and beta-blockers Unstable angina can also be caused by blood clots that block or partially block your heart's blood vessels. Unstable angina worsens and isn't relieved by rest or your usual medications. If the blood flow doesn't improve, your heart is starved of oxygen and a heart attack occurs. Unstable angina is dangerous and requires emergency treatment Vasospastic angina - Causes, Symptoms & Treatments Vasospastic angina is a type of angina (chest pain) that usually occurs at rest - often in the early morning or at night - and feels like a constriction or tightening in the chest. Vasospastic angina is also known as prinzmetal angina, variant angina or coronary artery spasm Prinzmetal angina, now more commonly called vasospastic angina or variant angina, differs from typical, classic angina in several important respects. Its cause is different, its clinical presentation tends to be different, and both its diagnosis and its treatment tend to differ from classic angina

Unstable angina is only diagnosed if there are no evidence of myocardial infarction (necrosis). However, unstable angina is considered an acute coronary syndrome because it is an imminent precursor to myocardial infarction. Approximately 50% of patients with unstable angina progress to myocardial infarction within 30 days if left untreated In case of Unstable angina, doctors take a physical exam along with ECG(electrocardiogram). It is a must in case of unstable angina. This is one of the main differences between stable angina vs unstable angina. Stress tests are also done to make your heart stronger and get the angina detected Heartburn Symptoms Vs Angina Symptoms. Often, there is a great deal of confusion between the symptoms of heartburn and that of angina pain. This probably arises due to the fact that an angina episode includes getting heartburn. However, there are differences between the two that should be recognized and understood.. In simple terms, angina is a symptom of heart disease that presents as chest pain or discomfort. It should be considered a warning sign that the heart is not getting enough blood or oxygen. This can be a result of narrowed or blocked arteries that impede blood flow. There are four types of angina: Unstable, Stable, Variant and Microvascular. (1 Unstable angina. Unstable angina also is called preinfarction angina. Unstable angina occurs with an unpredictable degree of exertion or emotion and increases in occurrence, duration, and severity over time. Pain may not be relieved with nitroglycerin. 3. Variant angina. Variant angina also is called Prinzmetal's or vasospastic angina

Definition: Unstable Angina. Unstable angina refers to chest pain that persists longer than 20 minutes, is of increasing intensity, and occurs even at rest. Together with myocardial infarction, unstable angina pectoris is referred to as an acute coronary syndrome. Unstable angina is characterized by the absence of myocardial damage, in contrast. Prinzmetal's angina is a form of chest pain, pressure, or tightness (angina) caused by spasms in the arteries that supply blood to the heart.. It is a form of unstable angina, meaning that it occurs at rest, often without a predictable pattern. This is in contrast to stable angina, in which chest pain occurs in a predictable pattern during exertion or exercise Monday, June 8, 2015. Unstable angina still exists. Beware. A middle aged male with h/o one stent 5 years prior presented with 7 hours of continuous vague chest pressure. During this, while he got up to walk, he had some elbow pressure bilaterally. He took some nitro without any relief. By the time he arrived in the ED, he stated that it was gone 7) Waters et al. Spontaneous remission is a frequent outcome of variant angina. J Am Coll Cardiol (1983) vol. 2 (2) pp. 195-9. 8) Walling et al. Long-term prognosis of patients with variant angina

Angina NHLBI, NI

  1. utes at a time, whereas pain from unstable angina is often severe and can be long-lasting
  2. Prinzmetal's variant angina It is a rare condition and, contrary to the stable and unstable types of angina, Prinzmetal's angina is not caused by atherosclerosis as a primary pathology. Instead, it is triggered by the spasm of coronary arteries that will suddenly cause a drop of blood supply to the heart
  3. unstable angina (more serious) - attacks are more unpredictable (they may not have a trigger) and can continue despite resting; Some people develop unstable angina after having stable angina. Treatment for angina. You'll probably need to take several different medicines for the rest of your life
  4. utes or more. Episodes of variant angina tend to last 5 to 15
  5. Unstable angina (UA), also called crescendo angina, is a type of angina pectoris that is irregular. It is also classified as a type of acute coronary syndrome (ACS).. It can be difficult to distinguish unstable angina from non-ST elevation (non-Q wave) myocardial infarction (NSTEMI). They differ primarily in whether the ischemia is severe enough to cause sufficient damage to the heart's.
  6. Exertional angina of new onset (even if relieved with rest and requiring a consistent amount of exertion to produce symptoms, angina is considered unstable when it first occurs
  7. However, the widespread use of the high-sensitivity troponin test has changed the diagnosis of unstable angina to NSTEMI in almost all patients formerly diagnosed with unstable angina. This has occurred because those patients formerly called unstable angina actually have abnormally elevated high-sensitivity troponin values

Stable angina - the most common type. It has a regular pattern and happens when your heart is working harder than usual. Unstable angina - this is the most dangerous type. There is no pattern or obvious reason for its arrival. It could be a sign of an impending heart attack. Variant angina - this is rare, and happens when you are resting Angina tends to radiate, causing referred pain all around the shoulder and neck. Anxiety chest pains/hyperventilation tend to be more localized near the heart. Anxiety chest pains are usually sharper, although not always. Many people with angina experience more of a dull discomfort than a pain, while anxiety tends to be more of a pain Patients may also suffer from difficulty breathing, or atypical symptoms such as indigestion, nausea, vomiting, or sweating. - Angina is classified to 3 types according to the type of blockade and blood perfusion, and duration of symptoms. and the 3 types are: Stable, unstable and variant angina

Angina vs. Heart Attack vs. Congestive Heart Failure ..

Angina decubitus is a variant of angina pectoris that occurs at night while the patient is recumbent. Some have suggested that it is induced by an increase in myocardial oxygen demand caused by. Stable vs. Unstable Angina. The type of angina pectoris so well defined by William Heberden more than 250 years ago is by definition a stable disease, basically implying that there is no immediate danger to the patient. The clinical picture is often defined as stable angina or chronic angina What is unstable angina. Unstable angina also called acute coronary syndrome, is a medical emergency where your heart doesn't get enough blood flow and oxygen.Unstable angina causes unexpected chest pain, and usually occurs while resting. The most common cause of unstable angina is reduced blood flow to the heart muscle because the coronary arteries that are narrowed by fatty buildups. Unstable angina เป็นชนิดที่พบน้อยกว่า อาการเจ็บเกิดขึ้นทันทีทันใดได้ในขณะพัก (rest) และคงค้างนานกว่าแบบ stable angina อาจเกิดอาการเจ็บซ้ำในขณะ.

Cardiac syndrome X is a historic term for microvascular angina, angina (chest pain) with signs associated with decreased blood flow to heart tissue but with normal coronary arteries.. The use of the term CSX can lead to the lack of appreciation of how microvascular angina is a debilitating heart related pain condition with the increased risk of heart attack and other heart problems Because the symptoms of heartburn vs. angina are so similar, it can be difficult to tell them apart. As this eMedTV resource explains, both conditions can cause pain in the middle of the chest. However, angina can also cause nausea and fatigue Unstable angina may signal a pending heart attack. 5,6. Assessment . Patient assessment must differentiate angina from noncoronary causes of chest pain, such as pulmonary disease, gastrointestinal disorders, chest wall trauma, and infections. Coronary angiography remains the gold standard in diagnosing coronary artery obstructions. 6. Treatmen

A myocardial infarction is a serious condition where there is complete blockage of blood supply to the heart. In contrast, stable angina is chest pain or discomfort that usually occurs with activity or stress resulting from poor blood flow through the blood vessels in the heart Variant (Prinzmetal) angina is characterized by transient ST-segment elevation and can involve multiple coronary arterial territories. Patients typically respond to nitroglycerin and high-dose. 1 MEDICAL-SURGICAL NURSING CHAPTER 38: ACUTE CORONARY SYNDROMES -Angina pectoris - chest pain caused by temporary imbalance between coronary arteries' ability to supply oxygen and the cardiac muscle's demand for oxygen o Ischemia occurring with angina is limited in duration and does not cause permanent damage of myocardial tissue o Two main types = stable angina vs. unstable angina. Unlike stable angina that occurs with exertion or stress, variant angina usually occurs ‣ during rest or with minimal exercise and frequently occurs nocturnally Arrhythmias often occur when the pain is severe, and most people are aware of their ‣ presence during an attack Patients managed initially with a conservative strategy who experience recurrent unstable angina or severe (Canadian Cardiovascular Society [CCS] Class III) chronic stable angina despite medical management and who are suitable for revascularization should undergo coronary arteriography. Variant (Prinzmetal's) angina is a form of UA that.

Angina that changes in pattern from previously stable angina, is sudden or occurs at rest is called unstable angina and may indicate a heart attack is coming. There are two other forms of angina: Variant angina pectoris (Prinzmetal's angina): A rare form that occurs almost exclusively when a person is at rest not typically during exertion or. Variant angina (also called Prinzmetal's angina) is considered relatively rare (only 2% of all angina cases). It's usually caused by a coronary artery spasm, and is more likely to affect younger women than in older women or men. The artery can momentarily narrow during this spasm, suddenly reducing blood flow to your heart and causing severe pain

What you can do if you experience an episode of unstable angina: Unstable angina should be treated as a medical emergency. Your doctor will do tests to find out if you are experiencing unstable angina. You may need medical treatment to prevent a heart attack. Variant angina (also called Prinzmetal angina) Caused by a spasm in the coronary arteries Historical Origins of Unstable Angina. Stable angina, often referred to as angina of effort, and its principal cause, reduction of the lumen of epicardial coronary arteries, have been recognized for >2 centuries. 1,2 Acute myocardial infarction (AMI), its clinical picture, and the importance of coronary thrombosis in its origin were described a century ago. 3 These 2 conditions, stable angina. Unstable angina means that blockages in the arteries supplying your heart with blood and oxygen have reached a critical level. An attack of unstable angina is an emergency and you should seek.

Stable, unstable, or variant angina? Flashcards Quizle

  1. Sometimes angina can occur when portions of the heart muscle are not getting enough oxygen even though the coronary arteries themselves are completely normal. 4  Conditions that can produce angina without coronary artery disease include: Extremely low blood pressure, as may occur in shock due to hemorrhage. Severe anemia
  2. To identify high-risk subgroups, 468 patients with unstable angina were prospectively stratified according to the clinical presentation of unstable angina (type I or type II) and left ventricular.
  3. 변이형 협심증, 사용 약물, Variant angina, medications. 2014. 7. 21. 23:06. 약물 복용 중이면서 가끔 chest pain이 발생하여 응급실 내원한 경우가 있습니다. nitrate fluid에 증상 호전되어 경과 관찰 후 퇴원하고는 합니다. 다음 내용을 더해 봅니다. - nitrate와 CCB 모두 혈관수축을.
  4. The median plasma levels of C-reactive protein were similar in patients with unstable angina with a left coronary lesion (6.5 mg per liter) and those with unstable angina with a right coronary.
  5. imal exertion in the absence of acute cardiomyocyte injury/necrosis. Collet JP, Thiele H, Barbato E, et al. 2020 ESC guidelines for the management of acute coronary syndromes in patients presenting without persistent ST-segment elevation
  6. Stable vs unstable: Unstable angina is defined as a change in the pattern, (frequency, severity, duration, or degree of activity that precipitates it or angina at rest) i Prinzmetal angina: Prinzmetal angina, or variant angina (spasm of coronary arteries) is a rare but chronic condition. The long term survival for PA is good for those pat..
  7. Aspirin, helpful in unstable angina, may theoretically increase the severity of ischemic episodes in patients with variant angina because it inhibits biosynthesis of the naturally occurring coronary vasodilator prostacyclin. Revascularization may be helpful in patients with variant angina and discrete, proximal fixed obstructive lesions

Angina is a symptom of coronary artery disease. Angina, also called angina pectoris, is often described as squeezing, pressure, heaviness, tightness or pain in your chest Angina is not a disease but a symptom of coronary artery disease and is typically described as heaviness or tightness in the chest. The condition is classified into stable, unstable and variant angina. Stable (or chronic) angina - occurs when the heart is working harder than usual for example during exercise. It has a regular and predictable.

Prinzmetal's Angina Cardiac Healt

Angina is a constriction of arteries in and around the heart. In most cases, that constriction resolves itself. If it does not and nitro does not relieve it, it can, indeed lead to a heart attack. I hate that doctors act like angina is a benign condition. It can be managed, but when it becomes unstable, it is much more serious and dangerous The symptoms of unstable and variant angina-such as sudden pain or pressure in the chest and shortness of breath-are similar to the symptoms of a heart attack. Both of these are conditions needing emergency medical attention and are often diagnosed in the hospital when people go to the emergency room for care Variant angina, also called Prinzmetal angina, is caused by vasospasm of a coronary artery. Variant angina can occur anytime and may lead to infarction, but it is not common and is usually treated with vasodilating medications. Unstable angina is angina that occurs at rest or tha Unstable angina occurs even at rest; there Is a change in the usual pattern of angina and is unexpected. It is usually more severe and lasts longer than stable angina, maybe as long as 30 minutes. May not disappear with rest or use of angina medication. Your husband should see a doctor to rule out a heart attack Overview. Unstable angina occurs when myocardial oxygen demand exceeds myocardial oxygen supply at rest or with minimal exertion. This supply/demand mismatch can be caused by conditions that increase oxygen demand or reduce oxygen supply

Unstable Angina - StatPearls - NCBI Bookshel

Check out this medical presentation on Angina, which is titled Coronary Heart Disease, to know about Chronic Ischemic Heart Disease (Chronic Stable Angina, Silent Myocardial Ischemia, and Variant Angina), Acute Coronary Syndromes (Unstable Angina, Non-ST-segment elevation MI, and ST-segment elevation MI), and Sudden cardiac death (SCD) Unstable angina is when you get angina symptoms while doing very little or resting. This can happen to people who have never experienced angina before. Stable angina can become unstable. If your angina becomes more frequent, severe, lasts longer or happens when you are doing very little or resting, see your doctor in the next 24 hours Variant angina pectoris (or Prinzmetal's angina) Microvascular angina. Is rare. Occurs almost only when you are at rest. Often doesn't follow a period of physical exertion or emotional stress. Can be very painful and usually occurs between midnight and 8 a.m. Is related to spasm of the artery. Is more common in wome

to 20 min. Variant or Prinzmetal's angina, characterized by episodic ischemic pain, often severe in degree, usually oc- curring at rest, accompanied by predominant ST-segment elevation, and often by ventricular arrhythmias, is generally FOCUS: Unstable Angina included with the other syndromes of unstable angina (5) Epidemiology of Vasospastic Angina. Spread of vasospastic angina. Vasospastic angina is an uncommon cause of myocardial ischemia, responsible for approx. 5% of angina cases. Patients are generally younger than those with stable or unstable angina secondary to coronary artery atherosclerosis. Variant angina more commonly affects women

There is probably no general agreement about the exact definition of what constitutes unstable angina. A review of the literature, in search of the least common denominator, leads to the following definition of unstable angina (Table 1): 1) pain at rest, or 2) pain on effort only that may be progressive or of a changing pattern in a patient with previously stable angina, or of recent onset and. A retrospective study was made of 158 patients with unstable angina admitted to a coronary care unit over a 4-year period. Twenty patients (13 per cent) had myocardial infarcts while in hospital. The diagnosis of unstable angina and non-STEMI is predominantly based on the ECG and cardiac enzymes. Physical examination, as previously described, is non-specific. The ECG tracing can have.

To review some more, click on the lesson titled Types of Angina: Stable, Unstable & Prinzmetal's. You are able to read up on the following other topics inside: How angina may feel to an individua Unstable angina. If you have unstable angina (where symptoms develop unpredictably), you'll need medicines to prevent blood clots and reduce your risk of having a heart attack or stroke. You may be given: low-dose aspirin; clopidogrel; an injection of a blood-thinning medicine soon after you're diagnose

AnginaUnstable anginatreatment_of_angina [TUSOM | Pharmwiki]Angina pectoris

Angina - Symptoms and causes - Mayo Clini

In some patients, unstable angina pectoris manifests itself in the form of spontaneous angina pectoris attacks with ST segment elevation. It should be noted that for the first time arising stenocardia can be stable (or conditionally stable) in clinical course, for example, for the first time arising angina pectoris of II FC It can be considered in the case of suspected arrhythmia or vasospastic angina (Prinzmetal variant angina). Noninvasive Imaging Diagnostic Tests for CAD. The choice of diagnostic tests depends on the clinical probability of CAD. The probability can be estimated by considering the age and sex of the patient and the nature of discomfort Angina vs MI. Angina vs. Myocardial Infarction. Lesson Transcript. Instructor: Justine Fritzel Show bio. Justine has been a Registered Nurse for 10 years and has a Bachelor's of Science in Nursing degree One of the differences between angina pectoris and myocardial infarction is that it is chronic and this is acute. We define chest angina as that pain or discomfort that we place in the chest. Prinzmetal's angina is the one you'll be most interested in because it is the one not caused by atherosclerotic plaques like the other two (which are known as stable and unstable angina if your'e interested), but by spasms of the smooth muscles in the coronary arteries which cause temporary constrictions (therefore temporary hypoxia -> pain etc.)

Angina update: Microvascular angina, prinzmetal angina

Discuss the factors that contribute to classical and variant angina pectoris. 2. Describe the pharmacological basis for the use of drugs in the treatment and prevention of angina pectoris. 3. List groups of drugs used in the treatment of angina with examples from each group. 4 for unstable angina and heart failure, and appropriate ICD shocks. Coronary artery spasm contributes to the pathogenesis of variant angina and ischemic heart disease and may play a role in the.

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